CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1. The Background of the Research.

Poverty has always been becoming the phenomenon problem along history of Indonesia as a nation state, history of a state which was wrong to manage problems of poverty. In a state which poverty is mismanaged, there is no other bigger problem beside poverty problem itself. Poverty has made millions of children cannot experience quality education, difficulty to defray health, lack of saving, investment inexistence, lack of public service access, lack of job opportunities, lack of social security and protection to family, higher current urbanization, moreover, poverty has caused millions of people cannot fulfill needs of food, board and clothing in proper manner. Poverty has made rural society sacrifices any kind of things voluntarily for the shake of their life safety (Scott in Sahdan, 2005), allowing the release of physical energy to produce profit for local wholesaler and accept mismatch fee with expense of energy which they have released. All of farm labor work all day long, but they accept very few fee.

BAPPENAS defined poverty as a condition where a person or a group of people, both men and women, could not fulfill their basic rights to retain and develop prestigious life. The basic rights of rural people for instance, they need of food sufficiency, health, education, job, housing, clean water, land, natural resources and rights to participate in social politic life, both for men and women. In order to fulfill basic rights of poor people, BAPPENAS used several prominent approaches namely; basic needs approach, income approach, basic human capability approach, and objective and subjective approach.

The basic needs approach discerned poverty as someone, family and society lack of capabilities, to fulfill minimum needs, such as foods, clothes, housing, health service, education, clean water and sanitation inventory.  Based on income approach, poverty is caused by the lowering of asset ownership, productive tools, as land, agriculture and plantation that directly affect their income in society. This approach determined rigidly the standard of income in society to differ their social class. Basic human capability approach assessed poverty as basic ability limitation like ability to read and write to drive minimum function in society. This limitation caused impossibility for poor people to get involved in decision making activities. Objective approach or often called the welfare approach which emphasizing on normative assessment and requisite that should be complied to be detached from poverty. On the contrary, subjective approach assessed poverty based on opinion or point of view of poor people itself (Stepanek(ed.) in Sahdan, 2005).

Fact indicates that poverty cannot be considered unpretentious, because it is not only related to the ability to fulfill needs of material matters, but it is also related to another human life dimensions. Hence, poverty can only be overcome if other dimensions are not considered. There are some indicators of poverty (World Bank in Sahdan, 2005): the ownership of limited capital and land, limited required facilitations and infrastructure, different opportunity among member of society, different human resource and economic sector, low of productivity, bad cultural of life, and abundant management of natural resources.

Beside that, the growth amount of residents which grew quickly formerly, causing difficult situation which befall in Java rural society. This Matter was discerned from fact to the number of potency of natural resource which becomes lower; decreasing agricultural land tenure; and worse exchange rate between agricultural productions with industry. The impact of this situation, make human resource pauperization process. Amount of impecunious group can not be avoided, even tend to be bigger in rural society.

What was written by (Geertz in Wattiheluw, 2004), entitled “Agriculture Involution in Java Island,” depicted one part of poverty portraits that was collectively multiplied concurrent with the declining of productivity and fragmentation of agricultural land that occurred in the village. Infected society with the disease of involution inherits low potency of resource. Generally in the long term, it will cause disability on the people, they do not have bravery to account risk, lack of initiative, less of ability to see potency/ existing opportunity, blind and finally become fatalist.

And perhaps some indicators which were defined by World Bank above, we capture in our state. It is true and it has become knowledge of public that in Indonesia, most of poverty enclaves are concentrated in village. The reason is absolutely clear, because majority of Indonesian people live there. During the time, village was only considered as marginal region, so that village always stayed in retardation and continued in the circle of poverty.

Referred to study and observation that were conducted by the expertise in social sciences area, in the reality, absolute poverty occurred mostly in agricultural sector particularly in food crop sub sector. Poverty itself represents resultant interaction among technology, natural resource, access toward capital sources, human resource, access to the market, low level of society participation in natural resources cultivation, and institution/ policy (Wattiheluw, 2004).

To observe the interval of household income from on-farm activity toward household expenditure as depicted in the table 1.1

Table 1.1.

The Interval Household On-Farm Income Toward Household Expenditure Per Year

No.

Land tenure (ha)

On-Farm Income (%)

Household Expenditure (%)

Interval

(%)

1

2

3

4

0

? 0,5

0,5 – 1

> 1

100

100

100

100

88,2

207,6

107,1

53,6

11,8

-107,8

-14,5

46,4

Total

100

114,1

18,9

Source: Researcher Tabulation, 2006

Process of society alleviation from the phenomenon of agricultural involution will be success if society as a whole component is dynamic. Beside that, new adaptation pattern will be passed by society if there is no barricade which able to hamper the occurring of development. This matter can only be conducted if there is an existence of direct governmental intervention, which is addressed for the poverty alleviation, and through development which is instructed by the government for the accomplishment of people basic needs.

It is excessively precise if the construction of society and development in a village become the priority to reach the target of national development, because village and its society represent national economy bases. Village also represents solidarity among groups of society with their activity in the environment. This integrity forms elements of physiographic, social, economics, political, and cultural interaction (Daniel, 2002). The result of integrity expresses society life that truly depends on natural resources potency and quality of society itself, where the earning acquisition is dominated by agricultural sector. This fact depicts a problem but at the same time it is indeed promising the national development.

On that account, the execution of development which becomes priority is absolutely precise matter. Main challenge to reach is to race development of economics, specifically in rural areas through efficacy in giving a different, better assessed situation, and more perfect is, healthier, and more humane than before it was conducted development program for rural society in certain region or environment. Even sometimes each rural society also gives certain development characteristic, which might was not possessed by other rural society.

If it was leaned on what was illustrated above, the perspective of this research comprehend that the existence of equation of poverty atmosphere based on the empirical and factual reference with the location of the research is very large. Supported phenomenon and mapped condition becoming strong base in the language of equality in this research. As the location of the research, Pujon sub district has various symmetrical attribute as a neglected and poor area. Main activity which conducted by the most of society is agricultural sector. Where the width of farm is 3741 ha, farm which is benefited for agriculture equal to 2684 ha, and only 471 ha that is used for residence.

Total amount of the residents are 59.610 people, 9381 people are categorized poor (Pujon in Numbers, 2005). Moreover several villages that exist in this sub district, its agricultural pattern have the characteristic of subsistent. One of its sub villages, represent an area that is terribly isolated from various accessibilities, such communications, transportation and other facilities and infrastructures. Farmers tend to be disabled to do productive activity in agricultural sector. They have to deal with complex problems beyond their power and ability. Like problems of wholesalers and uncertain market situation. Moreover, generally the typical of the agricultural sector in this sub village is rain cistern farm thus it become more complicated problem that should be overcome by the farmers.

Such situation, creating multi effects toward the pattern and way of life in the society. The worst possibility of this fatalist condition, might possibly instruct farmer to a deep hidden condition, or on the contrary, the farmers are progressively struggle to retain their life.

Life portrait of Ngebrong sub village, considered to be a unique phenomenon to be lifted to become social reality which exist in our midst, with its local uniqueness which can be interpreted in so many perspectives. Though the existence of this sub village is very isolated, underdeveloped and buried but however, in a practical matter the life of the society in this sub village does not seem showing weaknesses, moreover if we observe it from the economic side.

If we capture some conclusions from what were identified by BAPPENAS above, it is obvious indeed that some poverty realities we could observe in this sub village. For example, narrow ownership of land, limited capital, worsening of accessibility, and lack of education contribution to the society could be some indicators of poverty problems. But the unique thing is, with this limited situation, it did not make all the residents (read: farmers) in this sub village surrender, but on the other hand the spirits that they have are more excelsior from time to time. After three generations elapsed in a state of poverty, life of the society in this sub village (discerned from social structure and institution), is experienced some arrangement although in a slow way.

Starting with the awareness to build dwelling house which bricking up concrete with its equipment, indicated that spirit and awareness for competent life is excelsior. One of the forms of the spirit to escape from buried situation with built makadam road which used for path of its agricultural production distribution and transportation. The establishment of the makadam road spent almost a quarter f century. It was because in one year they could only finish 50 m2 of makadam. Nowadays the makadam road could be accessed and used by either local resident or people surrounding this sub village.

By relying on the empirical fact and real condition that occurred, hence as form of appreciation to such condition and situation, where spirit and hard work of the society of Ngebrong in fighting against retardation in assorted aspects economics, then it is important to conduct contemplation of dynamics of local society life as a study and discourse in settlement of poverty problem through research with title “Poverty Alleviation by Ngebrong Society” Case Study at Ngebrong Sub Village, Tawangsari Village, Pujon Sub District, Malang District.

1.2.      Problem Statements

Based on the background of the research which have been stated above, hence this research wish to lift some assumed problems which are very relevant in illustrating the poverty matters that faced by society Ngebrong  sub village to be searched its solution

As statements of the problems of this research shall be as follows:

  1. What kind of problems which the society of Ngebrong sub village faces in the effort to fulfill their needs of life?
  2. What kind of matters which support the society of Ngebrong sub village in fulfilling theirnNeeds of life?
  3. How far is the role of facility in supporting productive economics activity to alleviate the society of Ngebrong sub village from poverty?

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